The first stamp of Poland was issued under Russian dominion in 1860. It was valid for Polish and Russian destinations only. From 1865 on, Russia stamps were used. During its World War I occupation, German stamps were overprinted for use in Poland. Many local stamps were issued after the war, when an independent Poland was fighting Germany and Russia. These were for cities like Warsaw and Cracow. The first national stamps of Poland were issued 1918-39, when Russia and Germany divided the country again. Germany invaded Russia in 1941 and occupied all of Poland. A government-in-exile was established in London, issuing stamps for use aboard Polish ships and in military camps.