France’s first stamps appeared in 1849. Their design was the famous portrait of Ceres, Roman goddess of agriculture. When President Louis Napoleon (nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte) seized power and became Emperor, his portrait replaced Ceres’. Ceres, as well as Marianne, symbol of the French Republic from the time of the Revolution, have continued to be popular stamp subjects. France’s many commemoratives are beautiful examples of high-quality engraving and stamp production. Many of them depict major works of art and are artworks in their own right. Another design that appears on several French stamps is the Cross of Lorraine, a symbol of the Free French resistance movement during World War II.